Stem cell-derived exosomes improve post-stroke recoveryPublished: May 15, 2019
A research study has identified a culture condition for generating exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells that could stop post-stroke brain damage and promote neurological outcome in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia.
Stroke is currently the fifth leading cause of death and is the biggest reason for serious long-term disability. Stem cell therapy is emerging as a promising therapeutic option for ischemic stroke. There has been evidence that it is not only effective for preventing the ongoing damage but also for facilitating functional recovery. How stem cells induce the recovery was largely unknown and now emerging data suggests that exosomes derived from stem cells could be one of the effectors that rendered post-stroke neuroprotection.
However, there has been discrepancies on the conditions of exosome production, as exosomes released from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under standard culture conditions did not improve post-stroke neurological outcome.
Therefore, in the present study published in Neuromolecular Medicine, Dr Krishna Kumar Veeravalli and team at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford tested different conditions of MSC growth that could produce the best exosomes in terms of the therapeutic benefits it could render.
The team tested the efficacy of exosomes produced from the cocultures of regular and oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD) MSCs derived from human umbilical cord blood in vitro on post-stroke neuroprotection in stroke-induced rats.
Results showed that treatment with exosomes obtained from the cocultures of normal and OGD-induced MSCs reduced the infarct size, preserved the neurological function and promoted the recovery of stroke-induced rats.
Findings from the study demonstrate the best condition of exosome production which could attenuate post-stroke brain damage and improve neurological outcome. The study also highlights the importance of choosing the best experimental condition for exosome generation from MSCs depending on the context where the therapeutic action is required.
Source: Exosomes Secreted by the Cocultures of Normal and Oxygen-Glucose-Deprived Stem Cells Improve Post-stroke Outcome. Nalamolu KR et al., Neuromolecular Medicine, May 2019. DOI